What is Dental Orthodontics?
Dental orthodontics is one of the most important and first introduced specialties in dentistry. The main task of orthodontics is to correct improper placement of teeth in the jaw and to eliminate inter-dental distances. This can be due to incorrect positioning of the teeth or jaws, or it may be a combination of both problems in one person. Orthodontic treatments may focus only on correcting the teeth or changing the pattern and direction of growth of the jaw. On the other hand, dental orthodontic treatments can be divided into fixed and removable appliances.
Fixed devices are devices that do not need to be removed by the patient during treatment and the main components are the brackets and wires. Brackets are small components that are attached to a tooth by a special adhesive. The term “wiring” or “toothbrush” is also used to refer to orthodontics.
Removable devices are devices that the patient can remove from the mouth during treatment. However, this removal may sometimes be limited to short periods of time such as eating or brushing, according to orthodontist prescriptions.
Who is an Orthodontist?
Orthodontics is taught in most countries around the world with minor differences. In Iran, a dentist, after completing 5 years of dental education and obtaining a doctorate in general dentistry, can participate in the examination of a specialized dental assistant. If you pass the residency or residency exam, the dentist will enter this specialized course. The official period of orthodontic specialization in Iran is about 5 years.
Orthodontics is actually one of the specialized dental trends that are used to make the face and teeth more beautiful and improve their performance. Tooth tilting, overgrowth of upper or lower teeth, crowding of teeth and jaw disorders are problems that are treated by experienced orthodontists in a modern dental clinic.
The main components of dental equipment
Brackets are actually the link between the orthodontic wire and the dental system. These devices are made of metal or ceramic tooth color and are mounted on each individual tooth that the orthodontist wants to move, with a delicate adhesive.
The metal rings that most of the time surround the tooth of the molar and the orthodontist insert the wire into the special duct mounted on the ring. This metal ring is attached and fixed to the tooth by a special material.
The wires used during dental orthodontic treatment are inserted into a small groove inside the brackets and fastened with small rubber rings or thin metal wires. The wires used during the early stages of treatment to correct tooth decay and rotation are thin and flexible, and usually nickel-titanium. Usually the wires are replaced several times during the treatment by the doctor and as we go further, the wires become thicker and tighter.
Elastic or elastic straps can cause stretching in order to move the teeth. Sometimes the orthodontist may need orthodontic forceps in addition to the wire to move the teeth to the proper position. Plastic straps can move the upper and lower teeth to the right position.
Types of removable orthodontics
Removable orthodontics is performed in the following three general ways:
Functional braces are removable and are used to correct prominent teeth in growing children. Functional brace stimulates the lower jaw to reach its normal growth position. Eventually, the protrusion of the upper anterior teeth decreases.
The functional brace has two separate parts, an upper removable brace and a lower removable brace that close with the mouth closed. In order to achieve the best results, the patient should use a brace throughout the day, even while sleeping and when possible. The duration of treatment with brace function is usually 9 to 12 months and the specialist should adjust it once every 10 to 12 weeks. After its completion, a fixed orthodontic procedure is performed for 12 to 18 months to keep the teeth perfectly aligned.
Hawley’s plaque is a type of removable orthodontics that has a removable bow-shaped arch and is supported by Adam’s hooks. This plaque is usually used when the maxillary anterior teeth are too forward. The Hawley plaque is also used as a retainer if necessary with a slight modification.
The popularity of invisible orthodontics is growing rapidly, as its transparent plaques are unattractive and provide more comfort to patients. Patients, especially adolescents, usually have no interest in fixed orthodontics, as seeing orthodontic brace has to answer many questions or even annoy people around them. Invisible orthodontics is an attractive option for these patients.
Duration of removable orthodontic treatment
Generally, treatment with removable brace takes less time than fixed brace. The approximate estimated time for treatment will be determined at the first meeting with the orthodontist. After the teeth are sorted, the mold is removed. In this case, the expert will ask the patient to use the brace only during sleep to get the teeth into the new position. After that the treatment is complete and the specialist will announce the end of the brace period.